Thursday, October 6, 2016

Mobile Reception

Lior Regev
Jerusalem Institute for Israel Studies

Lately, with the increased use of smart phones, the cellular device is playing a growing part in our lives. Our dependency on cell phones has sky rocketed, with its diversity of uses. Hananel Rosenberg, from the Institute for the Study of New Media, Politics and Society at Ariel University, mentions some of them, including news, entertainment, games, calendar, documents, transit times, navigation, social networks, and of course – talking.

Ownership rate of cell phones in Israel is high by any standard. According to the Statistical Yearbook of Jerusalem 2016 (table VI/4), 91% of households in Israel had at least one mobile phone in 2014. The data for the large cities are slightly higher with 93%, 96% and 98% in Jerusalem, Haifa and Tel Aviv, respectively. Data do not exist specifically regarding smart phones, but estimations of ownership rate vary between 64% and 72%.
One situation that some of us may recall, perhaps from army service, is the search for an area with good cellular reception. Lack of reception is common in far away areas, but it might also be encountered in a central area, and even in the middle of town. The common desire for good cellular coverage comes with ambivalence, as the radiation from antennas and devices is a major health concern, mainly with children.
According to the Ministry for Environmental Protection, as of January 2016, active broadcasting cellular antennas in Israel numbered 8,696. Among the large cities, Tel Aviv had the widest coverage, supplied by 939 antennas. Jerusalem, with a much larger land area, had 673; Haifa had 391; and Rishon LeZion had 228. It may be assumed that the concentration of businesses and economic strength of Tel Aviv led to the good cellular coverage.
The break down according to cellular companies, or carriers, reveals that the three major companies—Partner, Pelephone, and Cellcom—had similar shares of the antennas infrastructure: 29%, 28%, and 27%, respectively. Hot Mobile held 15% of the antennas, and Golan Telecom had one percent, almost only in Tel Aviv.
The distribution is somewhat similar in the large cities: In Jerusalem Cellcom holds the largest share of 29% of active antennas, with Partner and Pelephone holding 28% and 26% respectively; in Tel Aviv and Haifa, Partner holds a bit of a wider share, with 32% and 31% respectively; Cellcom and Pelephone hold 28% and 25% of Haifa's antennas, respectively, and both companies each hold 24% of Tel Aviv's antennas.

Monday, August 15, 2016

Households and Religiosity

Yair Assaf-Shapira
Jerusalem Institute for Israel Studies

Every year, on the occasion of "Jerusalem Day", the Jerusalem Institute publishes the annual Statistical Yearbook of Jerusalem. The yearbook is the main data source on the city, and as such, it's used regularly by the writers of this column.
We tend to thoroughly examine population (persons) data, but today I want to look at household (HH) data. When trying to estimate demand for housing as well as for other services, HH data is sometimes more important than persons data.
There are 2.3 million HHs in Israel, and 210,100 of them live in Jerusalem. Jerusalem's share of HHs in Israel is lower than its share of population (8.8% compared with 10%), due to the relatively large HH size in the capital (3.9 persons compared with 3.3 in Israel). The balance between the Jewish and Arab HHs is also different than the populations balance, and the Jewish HHs form 71% of the total HHs, compared with 63% of the population.
Household size in Jerusalem may be large on average, but still, 38% of the HHs are of one or two persons only. These HHs include Jerusalem's many students and other young adults. Among the Jewish HHs this figure rises to 47%, or almost half of the HHs, slightly higher even than the figure for the Jewish HHs in Israel (46%). With such a high percentage of small HHs, it may be asked how come the average HH size in the city is larger than in Israel. The answer lies in the high percentage of HHs sized 7 persons and above in Jerusalem (15%, compared with 5.9% in Israel).
As of this yearbook, thanks to changes in the Labor Force Survey held by the Central Bureau of Statistics, data is available about the breakdown of the HHs by religious affiliation. Among the Jewish HHs, the secular and traditional HHs form 45%, the "very religious" and Ultra-orthodox form 33%, and the observant (religious) HHs, 22%. Among the Arab HHs, traditional and secular HHs form 64% (the majority of whom stated they were traditional), and observant (together with a very small percentage of "very religious") HHs, form 36%.

Sunday, July 31, 2016

The Jerusalem Files

Dafna Shemer
Jerusalem Institute for Israel Studies

In 2014 a total of 33,400 investigation files were opened in Jerusalem, 43% of which were crimes involving property, 36% involved public order, and 17% involved personal injury.
Of the investigation files that were opened, there 12 murder cases, 25 attempted murder cases, 179 rape cases, 447 cases of drug dealing, 1,622 home invasion cases, 2,078 vehicle theft cases, and 3,075 cases of malicious damage to property.
Most crimes against property take place within residences (2,734), on the streets of the city (2,282), and in stores (766).
This year the Statistical Yearbook of Jerusalem has obtained from the Israel Police crime statistics by area, thus revealing where the “hotspots” of crime are located. The data present the location of the crime (where the investigation file is opened), rather than the criminal’s place of origin.
A total of 2,449 investigation files were opened in the city center (comprising 7% of files opened in Jerusalem), an area with many businesses and a good deal of human traffic during the day. The area with the second largest number of investigation files was Arnona, Mekor Haim, where 1,364 files were opened.
If you’re looking for a safe area within the city, very few files were opened west of Mekor Baruch: a total of 12. In the neighborhood of Um Tuba only 31 investigation files were opened.
The area with the largest number of investigation files regarding property crimes was Nahalat Shiva (440 files), followed by the Talpiot Industrial Zone (332 files), and the eastern central business district – Bab Al-Sahara (329 files).
The area where the largest number of files were opened that involved vice and sex crimes was the municipality compound (162 files).
A large number of files involving public order were opened in East Jerusalem. In the Muslim Quarter of the Old City a total of 773 investigation files were opened. This is the area within the Old City where Friday prayers take place. Beit Hanina had 487 investigation files opened, and in Bab Al-Sahara 320 investigation files were opened.
Stay safe!

Translation: Merav Datan